Your Gynaecology and Fertility Partner

Uterine abnormalities | Female genital malformation

The uterus typically has a consistent shape, but sometimes there are abnormalities in the shape and structure which can result in complications. Female genital malformation results from the abnormal development of the Mullerian ducts during embryogenesis. Most women will be able to conceive without complications and symptoms. However, others will experience pregnancy complications or have trouble conceiving.

Signs and symptoms

  • Recurring pregnancy loss.
  • Absent menstrual cycle.
  • Pre-term labour.
  • Abnormal positioning of the fetus.

Acquired abnormalities

  • Fibroids
  • Uterine adhesions
  • A short cervix

Treatment options

  • Laparoscopic electrocoagulation
    This process is done as one of the therapeutic modalities in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome in infertile patients.
  • Hysteroscopic resection
    This is a technique which is used as a conservative treatment for women with menstrual-related symptoms. It helps to reduce the thickness of the lining of the womb and the diameter of fibroids

Cysts | cystic ovarian mass

An ovarian cyst is a solid or fluid-filled sac that is attached to the ovary. Cysts will usually go away on their own. If not, they can be treated with hormonal contraceptives or surgery if need be. Depending on the severity of the masses, they can cause a significant amount of discomfort and pain in the abdominal area.

Mild symptoms

  • Abdominal swelling.
  • Pelvic pain before and after menstruation.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Pain in the lower back and thighs.

More severe symptoms

  • Severe pelvic pain
  • Hyperventilation
  • Faintness and dizziness
  • Fever

Laparoscopic prolapse repair

Uterine prolapse.

Uterine prolapse is the slipping down of the uterus or part thereof into the vaginal canal. A uterine prolapse involves a weakening of a group of ligaments the top of the vagina which causes the uterus to fall. A vaginal vault prolapse may occur following a hysterectomy. The top of the vagina may start to protrude outside the body. Simply put, the vagina will be turning inside out.
The Repair.

A laparoscopy prolapse repair is a minimally invasive treatment using an internal video camera and a fine laparoscope.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Tissue that is protruding out from your vagina.
  • The sensation of pulling inside the pelvic area.
  • Urine incontinence.
  • Bowel movement dysfunction.
  • The sensation of looseness in vaginal tissue tone.



Subfertility warning signs:

  • Infrequent menstrual periods.
  • A history of pelvic infection and STIs.
  • Known uterine fibroids or endometrial polyps.
  • Known male factor abnormalities.

Some treatment options:

  • Corrective surgery.
  • Medications to induce egg development and ovulation.
  • Insemination.
  • In-vitro fertilisation (IVF / ICSI).
  • Surrogacy.




Fibroids are non-cancerous growths in the uterus that develop throughout a woman’s child-bearing years. The risk factors include family history, obesity and the early onset of puberty in a young girl. Signs like heavy menstrual bleeding along with pelvic pain get overlooked because they are deemed as a regular part of the menstrual cycle.

However, there is a limit to heavy and painful periods; unbearable pelvic period pains and prolonged heavy bleeding may need medical attention – preferably from a gynaecologist. If left untreated, fibroids can grow in size and number and take over your uterus, and the symptoms will only become worse and more painful.

Treatment options:
Abdominal myomectomy

With this option, a small incision called a bikini cut is made in the lower abdomen. The fibroids are then surgically removed from the wall of the uterus. After that, the uterine muscle is sewn back together using several layers of stitches.

Endometrial ablation:
Endometrial ablation is usually used for smaller sized fibroids in the lining of the womb. This is a treatment that can help erase the problem without directly removing the fibroids. It can help reduces heavy menstrual bleeding caused by the fibroids.

Hysterectomy :

A hysterectomy is the removal of the womb or uterus. The reasons for this permanent solution are varied; there are scenarios where the preservation of the organ is life-threatening, such as cancer of the uterus or ovaries, which in this case may call for a hysterectomy. In most cases, all other options for combatting uterus-related problems will have been exhausted.

Types of hysterectomies:

  • Radical hysterectomy: Removal of all the tissue plus the top of the vagina, usually performed for cancer patients.
  • Subtotal hysterectomy: Removal of a specific part of the uterus. This can be the cervix or ovaries.
  • Total hysterectomy: The removal of the whole uterus and cervix.
  • Salpingectomy: Removal of the fallopian tubes. 

Surgical techniques:

  • Vaginal hysterectomy
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy
  • Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy

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